Background: The effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis is limited by the lack of compliance whose determinants are not well known.
Methods: The compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis has been estimated and analysed by validated questionnaires administered before and after the short-term missions (about four months) in five tropical African countries of 2,093 French soldiers from 19 military companies involved in a prospective cohort study. “Correct compliance” was defined as “no missed doses” of daily drug intake during the entire mission and was analysed using multiple mixed-effect logistic regression model.
Results: The averaged prevalence rate of correct compliance was 46.2%, ranging from 9.6%to 76.6% according to the companies. Incorrect compliance was significantly associated with eveningness (p = 0.028), a medical history of clinical malaria (p < 0.001) and a perceived mosquito attractiveness inferior or superior to the others (p < 0.007). Correct compliance was significantly associated with the systematic use of protective measures against mosquito bites (p < 0.001), the type of military operations (combat vs. training activities, p < 0.001) and other individual factors (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: The identification of circumstances and profiles of persons at higher risk of lack of compliance would pave the way to specifically targeted strategies aimed to improve compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and, therefore, its effectiveness.